Academics

Syllabus

Syllabus for the Degree of Master of Science (MS)

MBIO-501 (Compulsory)

Advanced Microbiology

Marks-50, Credit-2,Time-3 hours

Microbial evolution and systematics: Early earth and the origin and diversification of life; Microbial evolution; Microbial systematics.

Detail study of microbes: Metabolic diversity among microorganisms- phototrophy, chemolithotrophy, autotrophy and nitrogen fixation, acetogenesis, methanogenesis and methane oxidation; Bacterial phylogeny; Unusual bacteria.

Virology: Viral diversity; Subviral Entities; Quantification of viruses; viral pathogenesis; viral vaccines, molecular basis of lytic and lysogenic cycle.

Genomics and Proteomics: Genome and genomics, Genome function and regulation; The evolution of genomes; Proteomics; Quorum sensing; Primer design.

Bioinformatics: Introduction to bioinformatics- history, goal and approaches; Major research areas-sequence analysis, genome annotation, computational evolutionary biology, analysis of gene expression and regulation, prediction of protein structure; Software and tools- Open-source bioinformatics software, web services in bioinformatics.

Medical Microbiology and Immunology: The Human microbiome; Process of infection; Principles of epidemiology; Epidemiology and public health; Emerging infectious diseases; The future of chemotherapeutic agents, Immunemechanisms; Diagnostic immunology.

 

Environmental and Applied Microbiology:  Measuring microbial activities in nature; Wastewater Microbiology and water purification; Public health and water quality; Biofuels; Products from genetically engineered microorganisms.

Books Recommended

Biology of Microorganisms- Michael T. Madigan et al; 13th edition.

Microbiology an Introduction- Gerard J. Tortora et al; 10th edition.

Fundamentals of Microbiology- I.E. Alcamo

Principles of Microbiology- Atlas RM

Microbiology- Pelczer.

Bioinformatics- Sequence and Genome Analysis; David W. Mount

Bioinformatics- A Concept and Introduction; Venkatarajan Subramanian Mathura et al.

 

 

 

MBIO-502 (Compulsory)

Environmental Biotechnology

Marks-50, Credit-2, Time-3 hours

 

Biosensors in Environmental Biotechnology: Development and use of biosensors in detecting environmental pollutants; Types: gas, immunoassay, BOD, and miscellaneous

Environmental Solid-State Cultivation Processes and Bioreactors: Classification; Bioreactor design and air preparation system; Monitoring and control systems

Value-Added Products from Organic Wastes: Production of enzymes, organic acids, flavors, polysaccharides, biodegradable plastics, animal feed, dietary fiber, pharmaceuticals, gibberellic acid, chemical and fuel from organic wastes

Biomining Technology: Recovery of metals from mining and industrial wastes; Recovery of metals from waste streams by sulfate-reducing bacteria; Recovery of phosphate and ammonia by iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria

Anaerobic Digestion in Suspended Growth Bioreactors: Fundamentals, microorganisms involved, feed characteristics and reactor configurations; Control and optimization; Anaerobic digestion of solid waste and sludge

Aerobic and Anoxic Suspended-Growth Biotechnologies: Activated sludge; Contact stabilization; Activated sludge with nitrification and denitrification; Extended aeration; Oxidation ditch; Carrier-activated sludge process; Activated bio-filter; Vertical loop reactor; Phostrip Process

Aerobic and Anaerobic Attached Growth Biotechnologies: Trickling filter; Denitrification filter; Rotating biological contactor; Fluidized bed reactor; Packed bed reactor; Biological aerated filter; Hybrid biological-activated carbon systems

Membrane Bioreactors in Environmental Bioengineering: Membrane classification; Types of membrane packaging; Membrane biological reactors for solid/liquid separation; Design of a biological tank for COD and nitrogen removal

Sequencing Batch Reactor Technology: Process description and design criteria; Performance, operation and maintenance   

Flotation Biological Systems: Principles and process descriptions; Dissolved air flotation; FBS in petrochemical industry, paper manufacturing and municipal effluent treatment; Operational difficulties and remedies

A/O Phosphorus Removal Biotechnology: Biological phosphorus removal mechanism; Phosphorus and nitrogen removal with A2/O, Bardenpho, University of Capetown and modified PhoStrip processes; Sludge characteristics and management

Treatment of Septage and Biosolids from Biological Processes: Treatment of Septage as sludge by land application, lagoon, and composting receiving station; Pretreatment, primary and secondary treatment of septage at a biological wastewater treatment plant; Septage treatment by anaerobic digestion; Mechanical dewatering and sand drying beds.


Books Recommended

Wastewater Microbiology, 2nd ed., by-Wiley GB

Microbial Biotechnology-Glazer AN & Nikaido H.

Environmental microbiology- Maier RM, pepper IL & Gerba CP.

Biotreatment  System, Vol.2, - Wise DL.

Nonculturable Microorganisms in the Environment- Codwell RR & Grimes DJ.

Molecular Approaches to Environmental microbiology- Pickup RW & Saunders IJR

 

Microbial Ecology- Atlas RMA & Bartha R.

 

MBIO-503 (Compulsory)

Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

Marks-50, Credit-2, Time-3 hours

Introduction: A brief history of molecular biology & biotechnology, Mendel to molecules: Biochemical and biophysical techniques used in recombinant work, purification and characterization of proteins, RNA and DNA. cDNA synthesis; Nick translation and in vitro translation. DNA sequencing and synthesis. Transposons - Tn5 mutagenesis

Genomics and Proteomics: Linkage and cytogenetic map, molecular tools, contig map, human genome project, isolation of chromosome, polymorphic DNA markers & STSs; Bioinformatics

Gene therapy: Somatic gene therapy, gene replacement therapy, gene function inactivation, antisense RNA, Ribozyme, inhibition of mRNA synthesis

Molecular Biology of Cancer: Cancer cells, causes of cancer, mechanism of cancer development, molecular mechanisms of oncogene activation, tumor suppressor gene, eukaryotic telomere and cancer

Genetic Engineering in Medicine: Production and function of antibiotics, types of antibiotics and their action, antibiotic resistance and molecular mechanisms of resistance, transmission of antibiotic resistance, multi-drug resistance

Agricultural Biotechnology: Biological control of soil borne plant pathogen, weeds control through fungi, plant surface microflora & its role in decomposition & soil fertility. Immobilization of heavy metal by fungi. Aflatoxin - its metabolism & biological effects. Mycotoxins - its biotransformation

Books Recommended

Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology: Concepts Methods & Applications- by K.L. Chopra and Anwar Nasim (eds), Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Calcutta

Fundamentals of Molecular Biology- by Zia Uddin Ahmed; Hasan Book House

Mixed culture in Biotechnology- by Gregory Zeikus and Eric A. Johnson (eds): MeGraw-Hill, Inc.

Concepts of Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology- by K. G. Mukerji, V. P. Singh and Suvercha Dwivedi. Aditya Books Private Ltd. New Delhi

MBIO-504 (Compulsory)

Pathogenesis and Diagnostic Microbiology

(Marks: 50; 2 credit; Time-3hrs.)

Infection: Entry, development, spread & replication, immunological reactions causing tissue damage, pathological consequence. Virulent factors of pathogenesis. Hospital infection & their investigation

Pathogenesis of important bacterial infection: Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Clostridium, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, Salmonella, Listeria, Pseudomonas, Neisseria, Treponema & Vibrio

Pathogenesis mechanisms: Fungal, viral, rickettsial, mycoplasmal & other parasitic infections. Pathological consequence & pathogenesis of HIV & hepatitis viral infection

Epidemiology: Basic concepts and definition, determinants of disease, quantification of disease events in population, types of epidemiological study

Diagnosis: Principles of diagnosis, specimen selection, collection & management. Microbiological techniques for diagnosis of bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Detection of genes for toxins & virulence; genotypic techniques - plasmid analysis, southern blotting, RFLPs, nucleotide sequence analysis; molecular typing of specific organisms

Books recommended

Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animal- Gyles, C. L. & Thoen, C. O.

Medical microbiology- Mims, C. A., Playfair, J. H., Roitt, I., Wakelin, D., Williams, R. &  Anderson, R. 

The short textbook of medical microbiology (8th ed.)- Gupta, S.

Bacterial pathogenesis: A molecular approach- Salyers, A. A. & Whitt, D. D.

Principles of bacterial pathogenesis- Groisman, E.

Virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens.- Brogden K. A. et. al.

MBIO-505 (Optional)

Molecular Virology & Oncology

Marks-50, Credit-2, Time-3 hours 

Persistence of viruses: Patterns of viral infection. Mechanisms of viral persistence, persistence of HSV, EBV, HBV & HIV in humans

Virus-Host Cell interactions: Cytopathic effects of virus infection; virus interactions with cell uptake mechanisms, cellular transcription apparatus, RNA processing pathways, translational apparatus, cellular DNA replication apparatus, cellular protein maturation pathways, effects of viruses on cell structure. Molecular basis of viral pathogenesis: Molecular & genetic determinants of virulence, virulence genes, host cell’s genetic system & other factors influencing pathogenesis, strategies used by viruses to facilitate their replication & expression

Viruses of special interest: Dengue & Japanese encephalitis viruses, Ebola virus infection, SARS viruses and Avian influenza virus

Diagnostic Virology: General approach to laboratory viral diagnosis, laboratory safety, obtaining specimens, detection of viruses, measurement of antiviral susceptibility, diagnosis of HSV, respiratory viruses, hepatitis viruses, retroviruses human population viruses.

Virus evolution: Theories of origin of viruses; factors affecting DNA & RNA virus evolution

Cell Transformation by viruses: General features of transformation, common cellular targets & strategies for the DNA tumor viruses onco-proteins

Books Recommended

Virology (Volumes I and II) – Fields.  

Medical Microbiology – Jawetz et al.

Biology of Viruses-Bruce A. Voyles.

Introduction to Modern virology- Dimmock et al

MBIO-506 (Optional)

Microbiology of Food, Fisheries, Water & Beverage

Marks-50, Credit-2, Time-3 hours

Food Microbiology: Introduction: Historical background of food Microbiology, importance of safe food & beverage for health, role and significance of microorganisms in foods

Factors influencing the microbes in food: Intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of food that affects microbial growth, food ingredients including process equipment & plant design; sanitation & cleaning; food ingredients; personal hygiene; packaging, storage; transportation

Food contamination and spoilage: Different sunrises of food contamination; physical, chemical and biological changes of foods caused by microorganisms; microbial spoilage of different food products; control & monitoring programs; Detection method-conventional, rapid end-detection & specific detection techniques

Food preservation: Principles of food preservation, physical & chemical methods of food preservation & their effects on foods

Food poisoning & food borne illness: Food borne pathogens, food poisoning, food infection and intoxication, factors contributing to out break of food poisoning; methods for detecting of food poisoning toxins.

Fish Microbiology: Microbial spoilage of fish & sea foods, microbial flora of freshly caught fish; changes in chill-stored fish; spoilage of special kinds of fish & sea foods

Contamination, preservation of fish & other sea foods: Contamination, Preservation; Use of heat, low temperature, drying, radiation & preservatives

Management & Quality control of food safety:  Microbial indicator of safe food; food quality control management, physical and chemical methods of quality assessment of fish; origin, principles, importance & guidelines for application of HACCP, hazard analysis & HACCP plan of some important exportable frozen foods; HACCP implementation methodology based on recent food law and regulation; GMP & SSOP (Sanitation standard operating procedure) for a fish processing plant; regulatory agencies- WHO, FDA, BSTI and Codex Alimentary Commission(CAC)

Application of Microbiological Risk Assessment: Food standards and specifications; Salmonella in dried milk, Listeria monocytogenes in sausage, Escherichia coli in frozen raw ground beef and aflatoxin in peanut

Water Microbiology: Water pollution & purification; water quality, properties of waste water, waste water treatment and determining sanitary quality of water

Beverage: Carbonated Non-alcoholic beverages; stimulating beverages; alcoholic beverages

Books Recommended

Food Microbology-W.C. Frazier and D.C. Westhoff.

Modern Food Microbiology-James M.Jay.

Food Microbiology-R.Skinner

Prescott and Dunn’s Industrial Microbiology- G.Reed.

Fish processing and Preservation-G. Subbulakssimmi & S.A.Udipi.

Food Microbiology-M.P.Doyle,L.R. Beuchat, T.J. Montville.

MBIO-507 (Optional)

Microbial Enzyme Biotechnology

Marks-50, Credit-2, Time-3 hours

Production, recovery, purification and characterization of microbial enzymes; immobilization of  enzymes; Enzymes  in food as health and safety hazard; Industrial approach to enzyme; medical uses of enzyme; the use of enzymes as catalyst in organic chemistry; restriction endonuclease; biochemical processing; industrial and technical uses of enzymes; use of enzymes in the extraction of natural products detoxifying enzymes; enzymes based detergents; use of enzymes as cleaning agents; enzymes in the leather industry; Enzymes in the textile industry; enzymes in the paper manufacture; enzymes in the antibiotics; miscellaneous uses of biocatalysts; genetic regulation and biosynthesis of enzymes

Books Recommended

Fundamental’s of Biochemistry – J.L. Jain

Principal’s of Biochemistry – Lehninger

Herper’s Biochemistry – Murray, et al.

Brock’s Biology of Microorganisms: M.T. Madigan et al. prenthe Hall Int.

A Text Book of Microbiology - R.C. Dubey and D.K. Maheshwari

MBIO-508 (Optional)
Dairy & Veterinary Microbiology
Marks-50, Credit-2, Time-3 hours

Introduction: A brief history of veterinary microbiology; microbial nutrition, metabolism and growth; sources and transmission of infectious agents; host-parasite relationship

Animal and Birds disease :  Symptoms, etiology and control measures of animal (including cattle and poultry birds) disease: (a) Bacterial disease coursed  by  Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Listeria, Erysipelothrix , Clostridium botulinum, C. titani, Nocardia, Actinaomyces, Salmonella, Shigella , Escherichia coli, Haemophilus, Pasteurella , Yersinia, Brucella, Pseudomonas , Campylobacter , Leptospira, Mycoplasma, (b) Fungal diseases: Dermatophytosis, Mycoses, (c) Viral diseases of cattle , swine, sheep, goats, horses, doges, cats and poultry birds

Veterinary Immunology: History of  veterinary immunology; immune responses, regulation of immune response control of immune system; detection and measurement of   antibiotics; immunity in the fetus and newborn; vaccination and vaccines, resistance to bacteria, viruses, tumors and parasites; autoimmunity and organ specific autoimmune diseases; drug & other agents that affect the immune system, the evolution of immune systems

Dairy Microbiology: Microflora of milk, microbial spillage of  milk, microbiological examination of milk, preservation of milk and fermented dairy products; microbiology of concentrated and dry milks and chees, frozen deserts, starts culture and their uses ; genetics of lactic acid bacteria, probiotics  and prebiotics; fermented by products, public health concerns, dairy product safety systems;   testing of milk and milk products, treatment of dairy wastes

Books Recommended

Veterinary immunology: An Introduction. By Tizand W. B. Saunders company. ,London,  Tokyo

A textbook of veterinary virology- by S.N. Sharma & S.C. Adlaklsa Vikas Publishing  house pvt. Ltd.

Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals- by Carlton L. Gyles and Charles O. Thoen  (eds.). Lowa State University Press

Essentials of Veterinary Microbiology- by G.R. Carter et. al. Williams and wilking Co. Baltimore

Applied dairy Microbiology- by Elmes H. Marth & James L. Steele, Dairy Scince & Technology Book  from C.H. I.P.S.

MBIO-509 (Optional)

Immunology and Toxicology

Marks-50, Credit-2, Time-3 hours

Inactivation and activation of biologically active molecules: Mechanism of antibody mediated inactivation and activation; hormone, receptor, ligand; neutralizing antibody – cause and effect; protective function of inactivating antibodies.

Inflmmation: Nonimmune and immune inflammation; immune specific protection against infection; Interaction of immune mechanism in infectious disease; evasion of immune mechanisms

Cytotoxic and cytolytic reaction: Mechanism of Cytotoxic and cytolytic reaction; immune haematologic disease. erythrocyte, leukocytes, platelets, Detection of circulation cytotoxic antibodies, protective and pathologic effects in infections diseases

Glaucomatous reaction: Nature of granulomatous, granulomatous disease; immunodeficiency states in the human

Prophylaxis and immunodeficiency: Designing of vaccines, primary and secondary immunodeficiency states in the human

Vaccine strategy:  Experimental vaccines for botulism, anthrax, malaria, pneumonia, cholera, typhoid, hepatitis and tumors

Toxicology: Origin and scope of toxicology, toxicologic evaluation, Metabolism of toxic substances toxicology, different toxic agents, environmental toxicology, application of toxicology

Books Recommended

Immunology-I.Roitt et.al.

Essential immunology-I. Roitt et.al.

Advance immunology – D. male et.al.

Text Book of immunology-T.J. Bizard

Immuinology; an introduction-I.R.tizard

Immunology: Immunopathology and Immunity. Sell S. ASM Press,USA

Bacterial Pathogenesis: A molecular Approach. Salyers AA & Whitt DD.ASM, Press, USA

Toxicology: John Douss M.D.  et.al.(2nd ed.)

MBIO-510

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

(Marks: 50; 2 credit; Time-3hrs.)

Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy: Antimicribial agents & its classes. Discovery & design of antimicrobial agents. Production of common antibiotics- Tetracycline, streptomycin, penicillin, cephalosporin & clavulanic acid. Production of therapeutically useful substances by recombinant DNA technology. Mechanisms of action of antibiotics & non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents, and bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Active antimicrobial agents from phyto-metabolites- Bioactive groups; extraction, purification, isolation, characterization, antimicrobial efficacy & cytotoxic assay for active metabolites

Production of pharmaceutically important microbial products: Vitamins- riboflavin, ascorbic acid;  Amino acids- L-lysine & L- glutamic acid. Bio-fermentation: Historical perspective; improvement of microbial strain for production of important pharmaceutical product; fermenters design & types; biofermentation of ethanol. Immunological products: Aim & pathological consequences of vaccination, factors influencing the success of vaccination, requirements of a good vaccine, type of vaccine and adjuvants. Protein engineering in vaccine development. Gene for hepatitis & polio vaccine. Isolation of vaccine producing strains; production of bacterial (live, killed & toxoid) & viral vaccines. Production of monoclonal antibodies, its application & limitation. Various tests and methodology: Sterility testing, susceptibility & toxicity (LD50) tests of antimicrobial agents, assay of antibiotics, tests for bacterial toxin, microbial contamination test of pharmaceutical products, test for absence of non-Avian mycoplasmas & ureaplasmas, efficacy of antimicrobial preservation, amino acid & vitamin assays, swab test

Books recommended

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology- Vyas, S. P. and Dixit, V. K.

Pharmaceutical Microbiology- Hugo, W. B. & Russel, A. D. 

Medical Microbiology by Mims, C. A., Playfair, J. H., Roitt, I. M., Wakelin, D., Williams, R.,     Anderson, R. M.

British Pharmacopoeia- Vol. II. 

Protein Engineering in industrial Biotechnology- Alberghin, L.     

A text book of Biotechnology- Dubey, R. C.

MBIO-511

Biomass and Biofuel (Optional)

(Marks: 50; 2 credit; Time-3hrs.)

Introduction: Importance of biomass and fuel energy; Fuels from natural sources; Basic bioenergy interconversion; Formation of biomass and its conversion to fuel; biofuel cell for generation of electricity and light

Potential Biomass for Fuel Production: Types and availability of natural biomasses: Land crops, aquatic plants and waste materials; Animal manures; Production of desirable biomass; Advantages and problems in utilization of different biomass for fuel generation; Pretreatment of biomass for fuel production

Bioconversion of Biomass to Methane: Biomass composition and methane production; Synthesis of methane under natural conditions; Potential microbes involved in methane generation; Man-made processes: Methane from sanitary landfills, sewage, farm, industrial wastes and energy crops; Reactor design; Utilization of the methane as fuel

Production of Fuel Ethanol From Biomass: Potential biomass and microorganisms for ethanol production; Problems in production of ethanol from agro-industrial wastes; Development of technology of fermentation; Ethanol  production from molasses by yeast; Ethanol  production from cellulose by rumen bacteria; Ethanol  production by Zymomonas mobilis; Future prospects of the industrial alcohol as  biofuel

Production of Hydrogen from Biomass: Potential substrates and microorganisms; Natural biosynthesis of hydrogen under natural habitats; Cell-free system and combined system for production of hydrogen. Recent trends in production of biogas from organic wastes

Biodiesel From Microorganisms and Crops: Potential microorganisms and crops for biodiesel production; Strategies to engineer microbes and crops for biofuel generation; Algae as a potential biodiesel; Major types, applications and problems associated with the production of biodiesel crops

Books Recommended

Food, Feed and Fuel from Biomass.Chalal DS.

Biotechnology: Principles and Applications. – Higgins IJ, Best DJ and Jones J.

Biotechnology: Bioprocessing. – H. J. Rehm and G. Reed, Vol.-3.

Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology. -  Arnold L. Domain and Julian E. Davies.

5. Biotechnologies and Renewable Energy. – Murray Moo-Young, Sadiq Hosnain and Jonathon   Lamptey.

Advances in Biotechnological Progress.Avshalom Mizrahi, Antonius L. Van Wezel, vol.-3.

MBIO-512 (Optional)

Extremophiles and Novel Biological Products

(Marks: 50; 2 credit; Time-3hrs.)

Extreme Environments and Microbial Life: The extreme environments and microbial adaptations to extreme environments; Extreme environment as a resource for novel microorganisms and biological products; Microbial biodiversity in extreme environments; Importance of extremophiles and their applications in biotechnological processes

Hyperthermophiles and Psychrophiles: Biotops, isolation and classification of hyperthermophiles; Physiology and biochemical basis of their heat stability and adaptation. The habitats, isolation and characteristics of psychrophiles;  physiology and mechanisms of their adaptation to the extreme environments. Biotechnological significance of hyperthermophiles and psychrophiles

Life at High Pressure In Deep-sea and Halophiles:  Deep-sea habitats; cultivation and characterization of piezophilic microorganisms; their adaptation to extreme pressure. Hypersaline environment; characteristics, classification and adaptation of halophiles to the extreme environments. The biotechnological potential of piezophiles and halophiles

Acidophiles and Alakaliphiles: Characteristics of eukaryotic, mesophilic and thermophilie acidophiles; their interactions in acidic environments; novel acidophiles, acid stable proteins and gene transfer systems. Isolation and classification of alkalophilic microorganisms; cell wall, and genetic analyses and bioenergetics of alkaliphilic microorganisms

Anaerobic Extremophiles: Extreme habitats, characteristics, adaptation and biotechnological exploitation of methanogens. Anaerobic and metal resistant microbes-characteristics and potential for the control and bioremediation of toxic metal pollution. Anaerobic non-methanogenic extremophiles-characteristics, categories, potential biotechnological applications

Extremozymes: Extreme environment as a resource of microbial enzymes; screening strategy for novel enzymes; starch processing enzymes, cellulose hydrolysing enzymes, xylan degrading enzymes, proteolytic enzymes; chitin hydrolysing enzymes, DNA processing enzymes, and other thermoactive enzymes of biotechnological interests

Book Recommended

Extremophiles – Microbial life in Extreme Environments. K. Horikoshi and W. D. Grant.

Microbial Growth and Survival in the Extreme Environments. Brock TD.

Microbial Life in Extreme Environments. Kushner DJ.

Biotechnology: A Multi-Volume Comprehensive Treaties, vol. 10 (Special Processes). H.J Rehm and G Reed.

Microbiology of Extreme Environments – C. Edward

Microbes in Action: Concept and Application in Microbial Ecology. Lynch JM & Hobbie JE.

Biodiversity: Measurement and Estimation – DL Hawksworth

M. S. Practical Courses (Group-A, Non Thesis) in detail

P-MBIO-513

Characterization and cultivation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria

Isolation, enumeration and characterization of bacteriophase from drain water

Isolation of TMV & infecting plants

Virus culture in embryonated chicken eggs

Determination of growth curve of bacteria

Isolation, purification and characterization of enzymes (protein) by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

Isolation, purification and Characterization of bacterial plasmids by Agarose gel electrophoresis

Agro bacterium manipulated gene (plasmid) transfer

Animal and plant cell/tissue culture for enzymes/antibiotic/Plant secondary metabolites

Separation of biomolecules by column chromatography

P-MBIO-514

Determination of BOD/COD of water. Determination of total alkalinity of water. Determination of  Chlorine in water. BSTI specification of drinking water/Standard qualitative analysis of water

Soil and seed borne pathogens (Bacteria & fungi), microbial decomposition, microbial heavy metal immobilization

Effect of substrate conc., pH, temperature and NaCl cone. on enzyme activity

Enzyme isolation, purification (including NH4SO4 ppt) and separation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

P-MBIO-515

Microbiological analysis of food products. Isolation, purification & identification of E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Streptococcus & Staphylococcus from foods

Microbiological examination and content of dairy products & drink, & selected foods, yogurt production, Microbial analysis of Milk

Serological diagnosis of Mycoplasmosis and Salmonellosis of chickens

Microbiological analysis of stool, urine, blood, skin, throat & mouth

P-MBIO-516

Determination of MIC & MBC/MFC of an antimicrobial agents. LD50 of antimicrobial agents, Antibiotic & vitamin assay

Determination of bacterial toxin. Contamination test of pharmaceutical products. Vaccine & antibiotic production

Serological identification of unknown organisms by agglutination test, immunodiffusion test, Haemagglutination test, ELISA, complement fixation test, VDRL test