4th Year

Courses for the Fourth year B. Sc. (Honours)



(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Animal viruses: Pathogenesis of viral diseases, prevention and treatment of viral infections

Viral respiratory infections: Common cold, influenza, rubella, rabies, polio, pox, dengue, japanese encephalitis

Viral gastrointestinal infections: Viral infection of gastrointestinal tract- viral diarrhoea

Hepatitis viruses: HBV-structure, genome replication and viral proteins, pathogenesis and genetic variants, epidemiology, transmission and prevention

HIV: Structure, pathogenesis, epidemiology, infection, symptoms and prevention

Retroviruses: Use of retroviruses as a vector for gene therapy and genetic engineering

Oncogenic viruses: RNA tumour viruses- retroviridae, general features and classification. HTLV-genome structure and replication, T-cell transformation

DNA tumour viruses- EBV-structure, genome organisation, transmission and epidemiology, disease pathogenicity, treatment and vaccine approaches

Books Recommended

Microbiology: Pelczar; International edition.

Biology of Microorganisms: T.D. Brock, 6th ed.

Virology (volume I and II)-Fields.

Review of medical microbiology-E. J. Jawetz  et al.

MBIO – 402


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Cytokines: Network and functions, regulation of immune response

Lymphocyte activation: B-cell and T-cell activation, effector molecules, cell migration and inflammation

Immunity to infection: Intra and extracellular bacterial infection, viral infection and parasitic infection

Prophylaxis: Vaccines and adjuvants

Major Histocompatibility Complex: MHC antigens; gene map, antigen presentation by MHC molecules and T-cell recognition

Transplantation immunology: Graft rejection, genetic control of transplantation antigen, mechanism and prevention of graft rejection, clinical experience in grafting

Immunological tolerance: Mechanisms of tolerance, thymic tolerance to self antigens, B–cell tolerance, artificially induced tolerance

Autoimmunity: Autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases

Hypersensitivity: Hypersensitivity, type-I, II, III and IV hypersensitivity reactions

Tumor immunology: Tumor associated antigens, immunity against tumors, escape from immuno-surveillance, immuno-diagnosis and immunotheraphy

Immunodeficiency: Primary and secondary immunodeficiencies ( B and T cell immunodeficiency disorders), Combined immunodeficiency, different factors associated with immunodeficiencies. Deficiencies in phagocytic function, complement abnormalities and immunodeficiency, AIDS

Books Recommended

Immunology-1. M. Roitt et al.

Essential immunology-1. M. Roitt et al.

Advance immunology – D. K. male et  al

Text Book of immunology – T. J. Barett

Immunology; an introduction- R. Tizard

MBIO – 403


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Diseases: Morphology, Cultural properties, pathogenesis, virulence factors, diagnosis, prevention and control of the diseases caused by following microbes: Streptococcus pyogenes; Streptococcus pneumoniae; Staphylococcus aureus; Corynebacterium diphtheriae; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Clostridium tetani; Vibrio cholerae; Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi; Listeria monocytogenes; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; N. meningitidis; Treponema pallidum; Bordetella pertussis; Giardia lamblia; Entamoeba sp.; Plasmodium sp. Representative cutaneous, subcutaneous and systemic mycotic infections

Laboratory diagnosis of infectious agents: Different approaches to sample collection, maintenance and laboratory management

Diagnostic studies: Bacterial, fungal, rickettsial, spirochetal, viral and mycoplasmal diseases. Diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases

Immunodiagnostic studies: Collection of serum, antibody titre (such as, ASO, Widal), agglutination, double diffusion, counter immunoelectrophoresis, immunofluorescence, complement fixation test & immunoassay (EIA; ELISA);

Accessory detection systems: Biotin-Avidin, amplified detection Chemiluminescence/ bioluminescence, immunoblotting, plasmid fingerprinting, nucleic acid probes for the detection and identification of infectious agents. Chemotheraphy, mechanism of drug action and resistance. Chemoprophylaxis; Vaccine approaches and immunization

Books Recommended

Diagnostic Molecular Microbiology – Principle and applications, David H. Persing, Thomas F. Smith/Fred & Teaver, T, J. Wite

Microbial Pathogenesis: A molecular approach – A. A. Salyers & D. D Whit; ASM press. USA

Medical Microbiology – R. Crukkshank, ELBS, E & S. Livinstome

Review of Medical Microbiology – E. Jawets. J. L Melnik, E. A. Adelbug, Lange Medical Publication U. S. A.

Medical Microbiology – R. F. Boyd, J. L. Mart. Li Brewn and Company, USA.

Manual of Clinical Microbiology – H. Lennette

MBIO – 404


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: Historical development, scope and essential features of microbial biotechnology; Biotechnology of developed countries

Energy, environment & biotechnology: Renewable biomass for energy; biogas production; conservation to fuel ethanol & methane fermentation; wastes as a renewable sources of energy; sources of wastes; anaerobic treatment of wastes & waste water; biomass conversion (biological & non biological process); bioremediation; bioleaching of  metals; biopolymers; biodegradation of materials.

Agriculture & biotechnology: Biofertilizer; bioinsecticides; vaccines for crops; transgenic plant development & microbes

Food, drink & biotechnology: Dairy products-cheese, yoghurt, butter and cultured milk; Bakery product-bread & baked goods, starch hydrolysate; Brewing-alcoholic beverage, cider, vinegar; Protein products- SCP, food additives & ingredients

Chemistry & biotechnology: Current status, generation of chemicals from biomass using microbes

Genetics & biotechnology: Strain improvement, in vivo & in vitro genetic manipulation

Chemical engineering & biotechnology: Microbial factors & process engineering factors, their effects on process performance & economics, future development of industrial biotechnological process

Biotransformation: D-sorbitol to L-sorbose, Biotransformation of antibiotics & steroids

Enzyme biotechnology: Screening & selection of microbes; methods of enzyme production; down Stream processing; principles, benefits & methods of immobilization of enzymes & cells; application of immobilized enzyme; biosensors & biochips

Biotechnology & biosafety: ICGEB, hazards to environmental engineering, biosafe transproduction biomarkers for GMOs, biosafety guidelines & regulations, intellectuals property right & protection, general agreements on tariffs & trade (GATT), trade related IPRs, patention of microbial live forms & the significance of patent in our countries 

Books Recommended

Biotechnology Principles – J.E. Smith

Prescon & Dinn’s Industrial Microbiology – G. Reed

Comprehensive Biotechnology – Murray Moo – Young

Introduction to Biotechnology – C.M Brown I. Campell & F.G Priest

Biotechnology: Principles and applications – L.J. Higgin D.J. Best & Jones

Molecular Biotechnology – S.B. Primrose

Basic Biotechnology – J. Bu Lock

Fundamentals of Biotechnology –  Purohit

Microbiology – R. Atlas

Biotechnology – Keshav Trehan

MBIO – 405


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Spectroscopic techniques: Visible, ultraviolet and infra-red spectrophotometers; spectrofluorimetry, Iuminometry, NMR and mass spectrometry.

Centrifugation techniques: Principle of sedimentation, centrifuges and their use, density gradient centrifugation and ultracentrifuge.

Chromatographic techniques: Principle of chromatography; column, thin-layer, paper chromatography; absorption, gas liquid, ion-exchange, exclusion, affinity and high performance liquid chromatography.

Electrophoretic techniques: Principle; factors affecting electrophoresis; low and high voltage electrophoresis; gel electrophoresis; SDS-PAGE; iso-electric focusing; isotechophoresis and preparative electrophoresis.

Protein characterization: Determination of molecular weight, amino acid composition and number of subunit; protein sequencing.

Microbial growth rate measurement techniques: Enumeration of microorganisms, measurement of biomass, biomass components and biomass environment.

Instrumentation for monitoring and controlling bioreactors: Basic variables for in-line and on-line monitoring of fermentation process control.

Radioisotope techniques: Nature, detection and measurement of radioactivity; application of radio-isotopes in the biological science; safety aspects of the use of radioisotopes. Cell culture- primary, secondary and continuous animal cell culture.

Books Recommended

Protein Purification – Scopes

Comprehensive Biotechnology, vol. 2 – Murry Moo – Young.

A Biologist’s Guide to Principles and techniques of practical Biochemistry, 3rd edition. K. Wilson & K.H. Goulding

An Introduction to practical Biochemistry, 2nd edition – D.T. Plummer

Basic biochemical methods, 2nd edition – R. R. Alexander & J. M. Griffiths

MBIO – 406


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Genetic recombination: Types and model of genetic recombination. Molecular basis of homologous and non homologous recombination. Introduction of recombinant DNA into living cells. Transformation of bacterial and non-bacterial cells

Basic techniques of gene cloning: DNA isolation and purification, agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR. Cloning strategy: cloning vectors-plasmid, bacteriophage, cosmid, phagemid, charomid. Enzymes used in recombinant DNA technology (restriction endonucleases and DNA ligase) Method of construction of gene bank and screening procedures of a gene bank for desired genes, c DNA library construction

DNA diagnostic technology: Restriction fragment length polymorphism, (RFLP), ribotyping, radioactive and non-radioactive DNA probes.  DNA sequencing techniques. Genome sequencing projects

Application of  plasmids in gene technology: Ti plasmid and vector derivatives, gene transfer through Ti plasmid (Transgenic plants/animals).Insulin, vaccine, biopesticides etc production. Diagnosis of diseases

Books Recommended

Principle of Gene Manipulation- Old  and primrose.

Molecular Biology of the Gene- J. Watson

Genetic Engineering- Kings man and Kings man

MBIO: 407


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: Importance of quality control of food, fish, beverage and mineral water

Microbiological Quality Control: Principles and fundamentals of microbiological quality control, chemical and microbiological indicators for quality assurance, standards for monitoring to assess compliance with good practices

Public health aspect of food quality & criteria: HACCP- origin, principles, importance, guidelines for application, food hazards, preliminary steps in developing a HACCP plan, CCPs decision tree

HACCP implementation methodology and Food laws & regulations: CGMP, General principles of food hygiene, establishment design & facilities, sanitation standard operating procedure (SSOP)-personnel, cleaning & disinfection, health policy, sanitary facilities & control, equipment & utensils, process control, sanitation of raw materials & water, pest control. Hazard analysis & HACCP plan of some important exportable frozen foods, Pasteurized blue crabmeat & canned food. HACCP verification, recall & consumer complaint procedure. National and international standards and guidelines of food quality

Quality monitoring: Phosphatase test, Brucella infection of milk, bacteriological examination of milk and ice cream, determination of canned food poisoning, Surface contamination monitoring, rapid method for detection of specific microbes

Beverage: Carbonated non-alcoholic beverages; stimulating beverages; alcoholic beverages

Books Recommended

Sanitation in food processing-John A. Troller

Quality control in the food industry-Vol-1, S. M. Herschdoerfer

Fish processing and preservation- Subbulakssimi. G.

Food Science- N. N. Porter and Hotchkiss

Food Microbiology- M. R. Adams and M. O. Moss

MBIO – 408


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction to fermentation processes: Range of fermentation processes, chronological development of the fermentation industry, component parts of the fermentation process.

Fermentor/bioreactor: Types, configuration, mixing and aeration; power requirements, impeller designs, baffle and aeration.

Inoculum preparation and development: For bacterial and fungal processes.

Fermentation modeling: Rate equations for cell growth, substrate utilization, product formation.

Mode of fermentations: Batch, Fed-batch and continuous culture process and their control.

Sterilization of fermenters and liquid medium: Medium sterilization; the design of batch and continuous sterilization processes; sterilization of the fermenter.

Instrumentation and control: Methods of control of process variables -temperature, pH, flow measurement, pressure measurement, pressure control, safety valves, rate of stirring, foam sensing and control weight, measurement and control of dissolved oxygen and related sensors.

Downstream process: Stages of downstream processes; Isolation, purification of fermentation products for commercial use.

Books Recommended

Fermentation: A practical approach-B. Mcneil & Harvey, IRL press, Oxford

Principle of fermentation technology-P.F. Stanbury & Whitaker

Biotechnology- M. D. Trevan, S. Boffey, K. H. Goudling, P. Standbury

Basic Biotechnology


MBIO: 409


(Marks-100, Credits-4,  Time-4 hours)


Environmental Pollution: Types (air, water, soil, noise, light, litter, radioactive, thermal, visual); Sources and Causes; Impacts on Health and Ecosystem

Air, Water and Soil Quality: Air quality and emission standards; Air toxics; Physical, chemical and biological water quality standards of drinking, industrial and domestic use; Soil functions and degradation threats; Soil sustainability

Water Treatment Technologies: Coagulation, Flocculation and Sedimentation; Filtration; Disinfection

Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Technologies: Origin, constituents and quality indicators of sewage or wastewater; Pre-treatment, primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater; Disinfection; Filtration; Sludge treatment and disposal

Solid Waste Treatment and Management: Thermal treatments; Dumps and landfills; Bio-waste treatments

Bioremediation: Types (in situ vs ex situ; intrinsic vs engineered; solid vs slurry phase; biostimulation, bioventing, biosparging and bioaugmentation); Phytoremediation; Mycoremediation; Advantages and disadvantages

Biodeterioration vs Biodegradation: Biodegradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; Role of microbes (aerobic or strictly anaerobic) in degradation or corrosion of metals; Types, mechanisms, and protection of metal corrosion; Microbes involved in degradation of natural (grain, oil-seed, wood, wool, fur, feather, leather, stone) and processed (pesticides and herbicides, detergents, fuel, lubricant, glass, paint) products; Physical, chemical and biological means of biodeterioration control

Biodegradable vs Recalcitrant Polymers: Microbial degradation of biopolymers and recalcitrant polymeric substances; Environmental impacts of microbial exopolymers; Aerobic and anaerobic degradation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds; Analysis of chemical features of recalcitrant compounds; Tools for recalcitrant biomass characterization; Structure-recalcitrance relationship; Catabolic genes involved in bioremediation

Viable but Non-culturable (VBNC) Microbes: VBNC microbes in environment, food and water; Inducers of VBNC state; Emerging microbiological methods for detection of VBNC microbes


Books Recommended

1.      Microbial Ecology – Atlas and Bartha.

2.      Current perspective in the Environment Ecology – Klug and Reddy.

3.      Ecological System and the Environment – I. Foin.

4.      Bio-treatment systems, volume II – D.L. Wise.


5.      Bioremediation: principles and Applications R.L. Crawford and D.L-Craw ford

PRACTICAL COURSES: MBIO-410+411+412+413+ Practical class performance =50+50+50++50+50=250,

Credits-10, Time- 24 hours

MBIO: 410

PRACTICAL: (Course no. 401 & 402)

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-6 hours)


Detection of viral Ags/Abs from patients sera by immunological techniques.

PCR Amplification of HBV core and surface gene.

Detection of viral DNA by PCR amplification and dot-blot hybridization.

Use of RPHA method for the detection of viral Ag/Ab.

Titration of virus using Immuno-fluorescent microscope.

Restriction endonuclease(RE) analysis, Virus identification and virus culture.


Detection of antigen and antibody

By Gel immunological technique.

By Radial immunological technique.

By Crossed Immuno- electrophoresis technique

SDS-PAGE and immunobiotting of bacterial proteins

Complement fixation tests

HLA typing

MBIO: 411

PRACTICAL : (Course no. 403 & 404)

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-6 hours)


Isolation, identification and antibiotic sensitivity pattern determination of pathogenic microorganisms from the following clinical specimens:

Stool, (b) Urine, (c) pus, (d) Blood, (e) CSF and (f) Biopsy


Determination of blood grouping


Determination of anti-streptolysin-O (ASO) titre

VDRL test


Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) detection of microbial pathogens

Plasmid fingerprinting in clinical diagnosis

Gene detection and DNA-hybridization analysis in clinical diagnosis

Complement activation

Tuberculin test

Widal test

Determination of c reactive protein (CRP)

Determination of plasma fibrinogen level

Determination of fibrin degradation product (FDP)

Radio immune detection of immunoglobulins (RID)

Anti Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (IgA, IgG,IgM)


Whole cell immobilization by Ca-alginate

Determination of specific growth rate, substrate utilization constant and biomass in a steady state batch culture.

Pesticide degradation: Biodegradation of halogenated pesticide by bacterial dehalogenases.

MBIO: 412

PRACTICAL: (Course no. 405 & 406)

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-6 hours)


Thin-layer chromatographic separation of amino acids

Separation of sugars by paper chromatography

Determination of organic carbon in soil and waste water

Ultimate sedation nitrogen in soil and waste water


DNA digestion by restriction enzymes.

Ligation of DNA with appropriate vector.

Study of Genetic Map.

Isolation of Streptomycin strain of E. coli/salmonella by gradient plate method.

Selection of diploid in Aspergillus nidulans.

MBIO: 413

PRACTICAL: (Course no. 407, 408 & 409)

(Marks-50, Credits-2,Time-6 hours)


Detection of coliform & fecal coliform from processed fish.

Detection of B. cereus and S. aureus in fast foods.

Detection of E. coli and Aeromonas, hydrophila in salad dressings.

Isolation of Aspergillus flavus from oil seeds.

Detection of hemolysin and phospholipase C (Toxins) from B. cereus

Test for microbiological quality of water and beverages: Standard qualitative analysis of water, MPN, and quantitative analysis of water by membrane filter method.


Dough fermentation by baker’s yeast for bread making

Production of Acetic acid by Acetobacter  aceti

Demonstration of a fermentor

Yoghurt production by lactic starter

10. Production of citric acid by A. niger


Enrichment and isolation of biodegradative microbes from environment.

Non-culturable state of microorganisms (detection by FA or Acridine orange DVC)

Detection of indicators and pathogenic microbes in potable water.

Water purification (viz, flocculation, chlorination, ozonation etc.)

*All the students should have practical knowledge in the field (All commercial industries related to microbiology)