Academics

3rd Year

Syllabus for the Third Year B. Sc. Honours

MBIO-301

AGRICULTURAL MICROBIOLOGY

(Marks-75, Credit-3, Time-4 hours)

Major groups of Microorganisms in soil: Role of microbes in soil fertility and plant nutrition. Biogeochemical cycling of nutrient elements

Microbial  degradation of Organic matter: Microbiology and Biochemistry of Cellulose, Hemi cellulose and lignin

Microbiology of nitrogen fixation: Symbiotic, non symbiotic and associative fixation (including mycorrhiza)

Biofertilizer: Microbial biofertilizer, inoculation techniques

Pesticides: Pesticide degradation and metabolism by soil microbes. Soil and water pollution by toxic pesticides

Microbes as plant pathogens: Concept of disease in plants, diagnosis and control of plant disease. Microbial pesticides their characteristics and use

Rhizosphere microflora: Elementary knowledge on rhizosphere on and rhizoplane microflora, R:N ratio, Role of rhizosphere microflora on plant growth and development and vice-versa

Books Recommended

An Introduction to Soil Microbiology – M. Alexander

Soil Microorganisms – T.R.G Gray and S.T. Williams

Soil Microorganisms and Plant Growth – N.S. Subba Rao

Plant Microbiology – R. Campbell

Plant Diseases – R.S Shing

Microbial Pathology – Agrios


MBIO-302 

MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY AND METABOLISM

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: Some principles of bioenergetics; free energy; energy coupling; oxidation reduction reactions; electron transport chain; oxidative and substrate level phosphorylation; photophosphorylation; Mechanism of ATP synthesis; proton motive force

Membrane transport system: Active, passive, facilitative and group translocation

Aerobic processes of glucose catabolism: Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA)

Alternate pathways of glucose catabolism: Pentose phosphate pathway, Enter-Doudoroff pathway, glyoxylate cycle, methyl-glyoxal bypass, interlinkage of pathways, anapleuretic reaction

Biological nitrogen and carbon dioxide fixation: Inorganic nitrogen metabolism; biochemistry and mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation; assimilation of inorganic nitrogen; fermentation of nitrogenous compounds; regulation of biological nitrogen fixation; CO2 fixation ( Calvin cycle )

General reaction of amino acids: Decarboxilases, deaminases, transaminases, racemases, stick land reaction.

Lipid metabolism: Biosynthesis of fatty acids; role of cofactors in fatty acid biosynthesis; pathway to biosynthesis of mevalonate

Amino acid biosynthesis: The glutamate family; the aspartate family; pyruvate family; serine-glycine family; aromatic family; histidine family

Nucleotide biosynthesis: Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines

Books Recommended

Microbial Physiology – A. G. Moat and J. F. Foster

Bacterial Metabolism – Gottschalk

Microbiology: Concepts and Application - M.J. Pelczar, Jr. ECS Chan and N.R. Krieg

Principles of Biotechnology – Lehninger


MBIO – 303

PHARMACEUTICAL MICROBIOLOGY

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Ecology of microorganisms as it affects the Pharmaceutical industry: Atmosphere, water, raw materials, personnel, buildings etc.

Sterilization methods: Heat, radiation, gases and filtration system, sterilization kinetics

Microbial contamination & spoilage of Pharmaceutical products: Sources of contamination, spoilage & type of spoilage, factors that affect spoilage of Pharmaceutical products

Monitoring microbial quality: Determination of potency of antibiotic or antimicrobial agents; MIC, MBC/MFC & pyrogen test; microbiological tests on sterile products (sterility) and non sterile products (enumeration methods- pour plate, spread plate, drop plate, MPN, filtration); contamination test for E. coli, Salmonella, P. aeruginosa, S. aereus, Clostridia; environmental monitoring (air supply, swab test)

Aseptic techniques: Design and maintenance of an aseptic unit (Laboratory/Processing area); aseptic technique by the operator; GMP in the control of contamination

Antibiotic & antimicrobial agents: Mode of action of common antibiotic & other antimicrobial agents/groups– ß-lactams, tetracycline, rifamycin, aminoglycosides, glycopeptide, chloramphenicol, macrolides, lencosamides, sulphonamides, trimethoprim, cotrimoxazole, quinolones, nitromidazoles, polymixins 

Production and quality control of immunologycal products: Vaccines (live, toxoid & killed vaccine), immunosera and human globulins

Books Recommended

1. Pharmaceutical Microbiology – W.B. Hugo & A.D. Russel

2. Dispensing for Pharmaceutical Students – Cooper and Gums

3. Guide to Microbiological Control in Pharmaceuticals & Medical Device (2nd Ed.) – Edited   by Stephen P. Denyer and Rosamund M. Barid

4. Pharmaceutical Biotechnology- Daan J. A. Crommelin & Robert D. Sindelar

5. Medical Microbiology: Mims,C.A., Playfair, J. H., Roitt, I. M., Wakelin,  D.  Williams, R. &  Anderson, R. M.


MBIO: 304

FISHERIES MICROBIOLOGY

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours) 

Fish as a food materials: Chemical & nutritional aspects, physical structure & chemical composition of fish

Microflora of fish: Factor affecting types & load of microflora on freshly caught fish, incidence of normal flora eg., Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Morraxella, Salmonella spp., Vibrio, Aeromonas spp., Bacillus spp,  Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium, Micrococcus, Sarcina, etc. on skin, gills & intestine

Spoilage: Factors affecting microbial spoilage of fish & fisheries products; microbial spoilage, chemical spoilage & autolytic spoilage; control of spoilage, fish poisoning

Pathogenic microbes in fish: Pathogenic microbes in fish, contamination of fresh and frozen fish. Procedure for microbial examination of fish; enumeration of bacterial loads, isolation and identification of fish bacterial pathogens

Effects of freezing and thawing : Basic concept and effects of freezing and thawing on foods; influence of freezing temperature & time on fish & fisheries products, response of microorganisms to freeze-thaw stress

Fish processing: Design & maintenance of Fish processing plant; Hygiene & sanitation of processing plant & personnel Processing of canning, freezing, drying, salting of fish & fermented fish products

Preservation: Use of heat & low temperature, preservation by drying. Preservative & its mechanism of actions

Packaging: Packaging of Frozen food & fish products, and its microbial aspects, Indicators of fish microbial quality and safety

Books Recommended

Food Microbiology: Advances and prospects- R. Skinner

Food Microbiology- W. C. Frazier & D. D. Westhoff

Prescott & Dunn's Industrial Microbiology- G. Reed

Microbiology of Frozen foods- R. K. Robinson.

Fish processing and preservation – G. Subbulakshmi & S. A. Udipi


MBIO – 305

MICROBIAL MOLECULAR GENETICS

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

DNA repair mechanisms: Nature of DNA  damage, light dependent repair, excision repair, mismatch repair, post replication repair, error prone repair system, SOS repair

Genes and their transcripts : Mechanism of transcription; split genes in eukaryotes; transfer RNA; ribosome and ribosomal RNA, tRNA and mRNA; Post-transcription modifications

Structural gene expression: Biosynthesis of polypeptide chain; inhibition of protein synthesis

Plasmids: Characters, classification, size, copy number, conjugation, compatibility, plasmids of different organisms(other than bacteria)

Gene transmission in bacteria: Molecular overview of conjugation, transformation and transduction; mapping and genetic analysis by conjugation, transformation and transduction

Transposition and mutagenesis by temperate viruses and transposable elements: Integration and excision by transposable elements; transposons in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; mutagenic effect of transposable elements. Medical significance of transposable elements(Ac, Ds, and Dt elements, Maize P elements and hybrid dysgenesi in Drosophila

Control of gene expression in bacteria: General features of gene expression; operon model; inducible and repressible system, positive and negative control; translation control

Control of gene expression in eukaryotes: General features of short term & long-term regulations in eukaryotes; mechanism of short-term regulation in fungi and higher eukaryotes

Books Recommended

Genes V-Benjamin Lewin

Molecular biology of the gene – Watson, Hopkins, Roberts, Steitz and Weiner

Molecular biology – Watson & Crick


MBIO – 306

INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time- 4 hours)

Microorganisms and industry: Historical development, scope and major classes of microbial products and processes.

Industrially important microorganisms: Yeast, molds, bacteria and Actinomycetes; screening and selection of microorganisms for useful products

Microbiological production of foods: SCP and MBP, baker's yeast, food additives; fermented sausage.

Microbiological production of beverage: Beers, wines and distilled sprits

Quality Control and management: Microbiological quality control and management of industrially produced food and beverages

Production of industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals: Enzymes; Organic acids-acetic acid (vinegar), citric acid, lactic acid and amino acids; Solvents- ethyl alcohol, acetone-butanol; Antibiotics-Penicillin, Streptomycin, Tetracycline and Steroids

Production of biogas: Domestic and industrial scale production from waste materials- substrate, microorganisms, digesters, production process

Books Recommended

Industrial Microbiology – Miller & Lidsky

Comprehensive Biotechnology (vole. 1-2) – Murray Moo-Youn

Prescott & Dunn's Industrial Microbiology – G. Reed

Biotechnology, Vol. 1: Microbiology fundamentals – H. J. Rehm, G. Reed, H. Pape

Industrial Applications of Microbiology – J. Riviere

Applied Biochemistry and Bioengineering – Lemul B. Wingard,  Jr. E. Katchalski-Katzir and leon-Goldster


MBIO – 307

FUNDAMENTAL VIROLOGY

 (Makrs-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: Brief history of virology, nature, morphology, chemical composition, nomenclature and classification of viruses. Isolation and identification of viruses

Replication: The process of viral infection- adsorption and penetration, the replication of DNA and RNA, the regulation of protein synthesis, the assembly of viruses

Bacteriophage: Morphology and composition of bacteriophages, growth of virulent bacteriophage, lysogeny, enumeration of phage particles, phage taxonomy

Insect Viruses: Morphology, classification and use of insect viruses as biological control agent and as vector

Animal and plant viruses: Overview of animal and plant viruses. Mode of action of virus in plant and animal infection

Viral infection and control: Pathogenesis of viral diseases, prevention, control and treatment of viral infections. A brief  knowledge on vaccines and antiviral drugs

Interferon: Characteristics, types, induction, action & therapeutic uses of IFN

Viroids and prions: Characteristics, infection, economic importance, control measures

Books Recommended

Microbiology: Pelczar et al. (International edition)

Biology of Microorganisms: T. D. Brock

Virology: Fields, 3rd edn. Volume I and II

Fundamentals of Virology: Fields

An introduction to viruses-Biswas & Biswas


MBIO – 308

FUNDAMENTAL IMMUNOLOGY

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: History and development of immunology. Introduction to immune system, basic concepts of innate and adaptive immunity, cellular and humoral immunity, cells involved in immune response, Lymphoid systems

Innate immunity: Barriers against infections: Phagocytosis-Process of phagocytosis, complement systems, activation and biological functions of complements, interferon

Immunoglobulin: Definition, origin, classification, specificity and physio-chemical properties of immunoglobulin.

Antigens: General properties of antigen, antigenic determinants, haptens. Antigen-antibody interaction, forces of antigen-antibody binding

Membrane receptors for antigens: B and T cell surface receptor for antigen. MHC molecules

Immunological Techniques: Precipitation reactions, immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, agglutination, co-agglutination and haemagglutination, complement fixation, direct and indirect immunofluorescence, immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS)

Monoclonal antibodies: Production of hybridoma cells, cloning and large scale production of monoclonal antibodies and their uses

Books Recommended

Immunology – M. Roitt et al.

Essential Immunology – I. M. Roitt et al.

Advanced Immunology – D.K. Male et al.

Text book of Immunology – T. J. Barrett

Immunology, An introduction – I. R. Tizard


Practical COURSES

MBIO-309+310+311+ 312+(Practical performance )= 50 + 50 + 50 + 50 + 50=250, Credits-10, Time: 24 hours

MBIO – 309

PRACTICAL: (Course no: 301, 302)

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-6 hours)

Agricultural Microbiology:

Isolation and study of Rhizobium, Azotobactor, Klebsiella, Azospirillum, Mycorrhiza and cyanobacteria. Study of some selected plant pathogens- Scabs, wilt, canker, gall pathogens and soil borne plant pathogens

Demonstration of microbial ammonification and nitrification. Determination of total nitrogen of protein,

Microbial physiology:

Extracellular enzyme activities - starch, lipid, casein, cellulose and gelatin hydrolysis. Hydrogen sulphide test, Urease test, litmus milk reaction, nitrate reduction test, catalase and oxidase test, Determination of microbial growth curve. Identification of unknown bacterial cultures. Degradation and putrefaction of proteins by bacteria. Fermentation of carbohydrate and other compounds by bacteria

MBIO – 310

PRACTICAL: (Course No: 303, 304)

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-6 hours)

Pharmaceutical microbiology:

Isolation and characterization of antibiotic producing actinomycetes. Microbial contamination test of pharmaceutical raw materials and finished products; Pyrogen test, sterility test. Bioassay of antibiotics and vitamins

Fisheries microbiology:

Microbiological analysis of fermented and nonfermented fish

Detecting Salmonella spp. on fish

Identification of microbial flora of frozen fish

Identification of different fish pathogens

Determination of microbial flora of frozen fish

Identification of different pathogens in frozen fish

MBIO – 311

PRACTICAL: (Course No-305 & 306)

(Marks-50, Credit-2 ,Time-6 hours)

Microbial molecular genetics:

Bacterial conjugation and transformation experiments

Isolation of plasmids and chromosomal DNA

Separation of protein by Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

Study of gene expression in E coli

Demonstration of conjugation/plate mating in bacteria

Complementation of conjugation in heterokaryosis in Aspergillus nidulans

Synthesis of inducible enzyme ,β- galactosidase

Industrial microbiology:

Estimation of reducing sugar by DNS and Somogyi Nelson methods

Estimation of protein by Lowry methods

Separation of microbial products by paper, thin layer chromatography and gel filtration

Production of citric acid, enzymes, vitamins and alcohol

MBIO – 312

PRACTICAL: (Course No-307 & 308)

(Marks-50, Credits-2 ,Time-6 hours)

Virology and immunology:

Symptoms due to viral diseases (Plant and animal). Cultivation and enumeration of bacteriophages. Serological identification of unknown organisms-slide agglutination test, precipitation test, single immuno-diffusion, single, radial and double immuno-diffusion test. Cell culture and antibody production. Haemagglutination and conglutination test. Fluorescence antibody test, ELISA technique. Determination of surface hydrophobicity: Salt agglutination, bacterial adherence to carbon. Determination of bactericidal activity of animal serum. Estimation of hemoglobin percentage, total RBC and WBC count, differential counts of WBC, ESR, ABO blood groups & types