2nd Year

Syllabus for the 2nd Year BSc Honors


General Microbiology II

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-3 hours)

Nutrition: Influence of various mineral elements & factors on bacterial growth; categorization of microbes on the basis of nutritional energy requirements, nutrient uptake processes

Physical requirements for bacterial growth: Temperature, pH, Gaseous requirements, Osmotic Pressure & other conditions

Growth and Replication: Growth; mathematics of growth; detailed study of bacterial growth curve; synchronous growth, batch, feed batch and continuous culture

Culture media: Criteria for an ideal culture media; Various types (Complex, chemically defined, selective, differential, enrichment, anaerobic growth media, tissue culture media); Composition and functions of various ingredients, preparation and use of culture media

Unusual Bacteria: Sheathed, gliding and budding/appendaged bacteria; Archaeobacteria; Cyanobacteria; Mycoplasmas; Rickettsias; Chlamydias; Spirochetes

Usual Bacteria: Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Rhizobium, Shigella, Bacillus, Pseudomonas

Books Recommende

General Microbiology-II – G. Schlegel

Biology of Microorganisms – T.D. Brock et al

Microbiology – M.J. Pelczar, k Jr E. C.S Chan & N. R. Krieg

Microbiology: An introduction – G.J. Tortora, et al

Fundamental Principles of Bacteriology – A. J. Salle

MBIO – 202


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: Introduction to genetics, microbial genetics and molecular genetics. Concept of gene

Mendalism: Mendal’s laws and their interpretation, misinterpretations of mendalian principles ,Test cross and back cross

Chromosomes: Definition, structure, polyploids, aberration, chromosomal theory of heredity, sex chromosome, sex determination and sex linked gene

Nature and function of hereditary material: Experiments indicating nucleic acids as the genetic material; structure of DNA, Watson and Crick model of DNA, and Chargaff's rules

DNA replication: Meselson-Stahl experiments; mechanism of DNA replication; DNA polymerases; circular DNA replication

Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: Types of RNA molecule, prokaryotic and eukaryotic polymerases, basic informations of transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Genetic code and translation: Codon assignment, degeneracy and universality; codon anticodon pairing, Wobble hypothesis; initiation and stop codon,. polypeptides and proteins synthesis. Post translational modification of protein

Gene mutation: Mutants and screening; mutagens, clastogens and carcinogen; molecular basis of mutation; repair mechanism

Books Recommended

Principal of Genetics : Simmon Snustad

Gene IΧ: Benjamin

Genetics: M.W. Strickberger

Molecular Biology: David Freifelder

Molecular Biology of the Gene: Watson, Hopkins, Roberts, Steitz and Weiner

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: Basic concepts and scopes

Environmental effects on microbial growth: Physical, Chemical and Biological factors

Environmental pollution: Air pollution, Water pollution (Fresh and Marine water), Soil pollution. Environmental pollutants: Microbes (Coliform, fecal coliform, pathogenic microorganisms), Chemicals (Organic and inorganic chemicals), and their impact on the environment

Pollution control: Air, oil etc

Microbial transformation: Transformation of C, N, P and S

Natural environment of microorganisms: a) Terrestrial b) Extreme environment Microbial community dynamics, Succession within microbial communities

Population interaction: Interactions between microorganisms and plants; Interactions between microorganisms and animals 

Sanitation and public health microbiology: Water supply, use of safe water, sanitation. Quantitative ecology:

Sample collection, sample processing, detection of microbial population ( Phenotypic detection, Lipid  profile analysis and Molecular detection ) , detection of microbial number( Direct count procedures, viable count procedures ), detection of microbial biomass ( Biochemical assay, physiological approaches ) and measurement of microbial metabolism ( Heterotrophic potential, productivity and decomposition and specific enzyme assays )

Books Recommended

Microbial Ecology – Fundamental and Applications – R.M. Atlas and R. Bartha

Microbial Ecology – A Concept Approach – J.M.Lynch and Poole

Microbiology – M.J. Pelczar, Jr. ECS Chan and NR Greig

Microbiology – An Introduction – GJ Tortora BR Funke and Case

Microbial Ecology – Organisms, habitants and activities – Heinz and Stolph

Microbiology- R. M. Atlas

MBIO – 204


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Concept of infections, diseases and virulence. Introduction to host-parasite interaction. Sources and transmission of infections. Portal of entry. Non-specific host defense through skin, blood etc. Microbial components and elaborated factors related to pathogenicity, clinical manifestations, morphological and culture properties, mode of transmission, prevention and control of the major microbes causing common diseases of the human body: - Upper and lower respiratory tract; Central nervous system; Urinary tract; Venereal & Genital tract; Gastrointestinal tract; Skin, soft tissue & Bone; Generalized Mycotic and Protozoal infections

Books Recommend 

Review of Medical Microbiology – E. Jawetz; J. L. Melnick; E. A. Adelberg

Essential Clinical Microbiology : An Introductory Text – E. M. Cook & G. J. G. L.

Manual of Clinical Microbiology – H. Lennette

Modern Medical Microbiology – M. R. Chowdhury

Medical Microbiology – J. P. Duguld, R. P Marimian & R. H. A. Swain

Microbial Pathogenesis : A  molecular approach – A. A. Salyers and D. D Whitt

MBIO – 205


(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-3 hours)

Introduction: Definition, properties and application of enzymes, brief explanation of cofactors,  coenzymes, antizymes, lysozymes, isozymes, abzymes, ribozymes, synzymes, extremozymes, zymogen, allosteric enzymes. Nature, functions, nomenclature & classification of enzymes

Catalysis and mode of action of enzymes: Mechanisms of enzyme action; active site; allosteric site; general acid base catalysis; covalent catalysis; non-protein catalytic groups and metal ions

Structure: Primary, secondary, tertiary & quaternary structure, 3D structure

Enzyme regulation: Competitive, non-competitive and un-competitive inhibition; feed-back inhibition; activators and modifiers

Factors: Temperature, pH, substrate and enzyme concentration, substrate specificity

Kinetics: Simple enzyme kinetics with single and multi-substrate; Michaelis-Menten equation,  turnover number; Km & Vmax; Lock & Key model; Koshland model 

Books Recommended 

Principle of Biochemistry – J. Lehninger

Biotechnology, Vol. 7a. Enzyme Technology – H. J. Rehm, VCH Germany

Enzymes-Trevor Palmer EWP publication

Principles of Enzymology for Bacteriological Application- ELSIVIER pub.

MBIO – 206


(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-3 hours)

Cellular physiology, digestion & digestive system: Mechanisms and control of the secretion & composition of digestive juices; digestion and absorption of foodstuffs

Blood, circulatory and respiratory system: Composition, formation, destruction & function of blood, blood coagulation, blood group, tissue fluid; cardiovascular system. Respiratory system and respiratory stimulants. Structures & functions of lungs, liver, kidney, pancreas, spleen

Nervous system: Functions & classification

Reproductive system: Structure & function of testis, ovary, uterus & placenta

Endocrinology: Functions, Mechanisms and properties of different hormones

Books Recommended

Introduction to Human Physiology – M. Grifith

Human Physiology – R. F. Schumddt and G. Thews

Human Anatomy, Physiology and Pathophysiology – G. Thews, F. Mutschler & P. Vaupe

MBIO – 207


(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-3 hours)

Definition, its uses, limitations & scope in microbiology. Statistical data source, collection, processing & Presentation, tabulation: Graphical & diagrammatic representation. Frequency distribution

Measures of location (Central tendency). Measures of dispersion. Measures of moments, skew ness & kurtosis. Probability, binomial, Poisson & normal distribution

Simple correction analysis, Relationship between co-efficient of correlation & regression-co-efficient

Regression analysis, useful theorems in regression & correlation. Principles of sampling, simple

random sampling, stratified random sampling, systemic sampling, its uses & standard error of estimates, sampling & non-sampling errors

Basic ideas of significance tests, 't' test, 'X2' test, 'F'-test (one way & Two way) & their uses

Design of experiment (one way & two-way classification) complete randomized design & randomized block design

Books Recommended

Simple Lesson from Biometry – S. H. Zaman

Introduction to Statistical Analysis – W. J. Dixon and F, J. Massey

Methods in Statistics – M. G. Mostafa

Introduction to Statistics – M. A. Mian and A. Miyan

Statistical Methods – G. W. Snedecor and W. G. Cochran

MBIO – 208


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: A brief introduction of atomic structure and electronic configuration

Chemical Bonding: Ionic Bond: Electronegativity, dipole moment. Covalent Bond: Potential curve, LCAO method, diatomic molecules and hybridization. Weak Bonds: Hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interaction (brief treatment), Metal Bond: Transition metal complexes, examples of different bond types in biomolecules

Introduction to Stereochemistry: Enantiomers, plane polarized light and optical activity, configuration

Alkanes: Occurrence, structure, nomenclature, synthesis, Physical and chemical properties

Alkyl Halide: Nucleophilic substitution reactions, Grignard reagents and other organometallic compounds

Alkenes and alkynes: Occurrence, structure, nomenclature, synthesis, physical and chemical properties

Alcohols, Ethers, Epoxides and Diols: Occurrence nomenclature, structure, synthesis, Physical and chemical properties and use

Aromaticity: Structure of benzenes, sources of aromatic hydrocarbons, industrially important compounds, nomenclature of benzene derivatives, electrophilic aromatic substitution

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, synthesis mucleophilic addition, reaction, addition, elemination reaction, oxidation-reduction of cabonyl compounds, haloform reaction, enolisation-halo carbonyl compounds, aldol condensation, benzoin condensation

Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: Nomenclature, synthesis, properties and reactions, decarboxylation reactions, decarboxylic acids, esters

Nitro-compounds and Amines: Occurrence, nomenclature, synthesis, classification, properties, reactions, use, diazotisation and diazonium compounds

Phenols: Occurrence, nomenclature, synthesis and reactions; polyhydric phenols

Books Recommended

Organic Chemistry – Morison and Boyd

Advanced Organic Chemistry – B. S. Bahl and Arun Bahl

MBIO – 209


(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: Brief history of Mycology, vegetative structure, reproduction, classification (Alexopoulos and Mims), evolutionary trends and economic importance of fungi. Saprophytism, parasitism, symbiosis, biological specialization and heterothallism

 General characters of:

1.      Chytridiomycetes

2.      Oomycetes 

3.      Zygomycetes 

4.      Ascomycetes

5.      Basidiomycetes and

6.      Deuteromycetes

Detailed study of the genera:

1.      Synchytrium

2.      Saprolegnia

3.      Phythophthora

4.      Pythium

5.      Plasmopara

6.      Rhizopus

7.      Saccharomyces

8.       Aspergillus

9.      Erysiphae

10.  Puccinia

11.  Ustillago

12.  Agaricus

Industrial uses of: Mucor, Aspergillus,Penicillium,Yeast etc.

Important fungal genera of human diseases: Epidermophyton, TrichophytonMicrosporum, Candida, etc.

Nutrition & metabolism: Nutritional requirement of fungi, growth, development, physiology and metabolism of fungi

Books Recommended

Introductory Mycology – C. J. Alexopolous and C. W Mims

Introduction to Fungi – J. Webster

A Text of Fungi – H. C Dube

Fungi – L. C. Hawker

Introduction to Fungi – J. E. Smith

PRACTICAL (MAJOR COURSES):125 {(50+50+25(Practical  Class Performance)}


MBIO 210

PRACTICAL (Course no. 201,202)

Marks-50, Credit-2, Time-6 hours


  1. Quantitative & qualitative study of microbes and making growth curve
  2. Turbidimetric estimation of bacterial growth
  3. Techniques of pipetting and dilution
  4. Techniques of enumeration of microorganisms: Spread plate and pour plate techniques for viable cell count. Improved Neubaur counting chamber and Miles and Misra technique
  5. Isolation of pure culture from mixed culture. Pure culture study, culture transfer technique
  6. Isolation, identification and preservation of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Psuedomonous, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio etc.


1.      Isolation of antibiotic resistant mutants and system for chemical carcinogenicity

2.      Detection of chromosome by staining

3.      Demonstration of streaking plate by toothpick

4.      Demonstration of picking and patching colonies

5.      Replica plate for transfer of colonies

6.      Induction of morphological mutation in Neurospora crassa Ema (5297) with formaldehyde solution

7.      Bioassay for evaluating the mutagens/carcinogens


PRACTICAL (course no.: 203,204, 205)

Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-6 hours


1.      Microscopic study of parasites

2.      Microscopic study of the pathogenic microorganisms present in air, water & soil (Gram reaction, morphology, motility etc.)

3.      Microbial flora of throat and skin

4.      Identification of human staphylococcal pathogens


1.      Environmental Effects: Effect of physical and chemical agents on microbial growth: Temperature, pH, NaCl

2.      MPN test


Effect of substrate, pH and temp. on enzyme activity. Amylase, catalase and phosphatase tests

PRACTICAL (related):100 {(40+40+20(Practical Class Performance)} Credits-4

 MBIO – 212

PRACTICAL: (Course no: 206& 207)

Marks-40, Time-6 hours


1. Tests in circulatory system: Total blood cell count, Differential count for WBC, determination of total bilirubin, cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids, uric acid, glucose, etc, in blood

2. Gastro-enteric system

3. Genito-urinary tract system

4. Respiratory tract system

5. Blood pressure, Blood groups & ESR, haemoglobin


Graphical representation of data measures of location, dispersion, skewness, kurtosis, coefficient of correlation, Least square estimates of parameters in regression equations, use of random number table, Analysis of one, two & three way classification including missing observations. Construction of control charts. Method of moving average. Problems on-test, X2 test & F test. Preparation of ANOVA

MBIO – 213

PRACTICAL: (Course no: 208 & 209)

Marks-40, Time-6 hours


Identification of organic compounds containing following functional groups: -OH, - C=O, -COOH, - -NH2 and –CONH2 groups. Estimation of the following functional groups: Amino, Carboxyl and Hydroxyl groups


Preparation of stains (Cotton blue, lactophenol etc.), slides; mounting of specimens

Detail study of: Phytophthora, Mucor, Saccharaomyces, Neurospora, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Candida, Curvularia, Alternaria, Fusarium, Dreschlera, Colletotrichum, Macrophomina, Agaricus etc. (Locally available members of fungi covered in the theory)Techniques of growing fungi on culture media