Academics

1st Year

Syllabus for the First Year B. Sc Honours

Session: 2011 – 2012 & 2012 - 2013

MBIO –101

GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY-I

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Historical development of Microbiology: The beginning of microbiology, spontaneous generation versus biogenesis, fermentation, germ theory, Koch’s postulates, vaccination, antisepsis, chemotherapy

The Microbial World: Basic concept of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Nomenclature and classification

Viroids and Prions: History, general characteristics, economic importance

Viruses: History, Classification, nomenclature, morphology, chemical composition, replication, economic importance

Bacteria: General characteristics, Classification, nomenclature, size, shape, structure & function, reproduction, nutrition, economic importance

Actinomycetes: General characteristics, Classification, economic importance

Fungi: Classification, nomenclature, growth & reproduction, nutrition, economic importance

Algae: General characteristics, Classification, economic importance

Protozoa: General characteristics, Classification, economic importance

Application of Microbiology: Food and dairy, Agriculture, Medical Microbiology, Industry, Health and Sanitation, Environment and Pollution control

Books Recommended

Biology of Microorganisms – T.D. Brock et al.

Microbiology – M.J Pelczar, k Jr. E.C.S Chan & N.R Krieg

Microbiology an Introduction – G. J Tortora, et al.

Fundamental principles of Bacteriology – A.J Salle


MBIO –102

BASIC TECHNIQUES IN MICROBIOLOGY

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Microscopy: Principles, functions, application and care of various types of microscope

Staining of microorganisms: Chemical properties of stains, mechanism of staining, techniques of various type of staining

Culture media: Culture media & types, techniques in preparation, sterilization, storage

Microbial Culture and Cultivation techniques: Microbial culture & types, culture transfer, isolation of pure cultures by various methods, aerobic & anaerobic cultivation techniques

Identification method: Identification of microbial cells by microscopic, cultural, biochemical, serological & molecular techniques

Microbial control: Techniques of microbial control by physical and chemical means

Microbial growth & measurement: Microbial growth & growth curve, measurement of microbial growth by direct & indirect methods

Culture preservation: Aim & principles of culture preservation, short and long term preservation and management of microbial cultures by various techniques

Books Recommended

Microbiology- M. J. Pelczar, E. C. S. Chan and Noel R. krieg

Microbiology an introduction – Tortora, Funke & Case

Methods in Microbiology – Norris & Ribbon


MBIO – 103

MICROBIAL ECOLOGY

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: Definition, scope and historical development of microbial ecology

Ecosystem: Definition, characteristics and component of ecosystem, Food chain

Physiological Ecology of Microorganisms:

Abiotic limitations to microbial growth - Liebig's law of minimum,  Shelford's law of tolerance

Environmental determinants - temperature, radiation, pressure, salinity, water activity, movement, hydrogen ion concentration, redox potential, organic compounds and inorganic compounds

Microorganism in their natural habitats:

Hydro-ecosphere:

Fresh water - Stratification of the pond/lake. Composition and activity of  fresh water microbial community

Marine water - Characteristics and Stratification of the Ocean. Composition and activity of marine microbial community

Atmo- ecosphere:

Characteristics and Stratification of atmoecosphere. The atmosphere as habitat and medium for microbial dispersal

Litho-ecosphere:

Introduction to soil formation- rocks & mineral, soil horizon, soil texture, soil organic matter, physical and chemical properties of soil

Population interaction: Interactions among microorganisms-Neutralism, Commensalism, Mutualism, Amensalism, Synergism, Competition, predation, parasitism

Adaptation and interactions of microorganisms in the extreme environments:  Hot spring, salt lakes, acid springs

Books Recommended

Microbial Ecology fundamentals and applications – R.M Atlas and Bartha
Microbial Ecology: a conceptual approach – J. M. Lynch and Poole
Microbiology – M. J. Pelczar, Jr. E. C. S. Chan & N. R. Krieg
Microbiology: An introduction - G. J. Tortora et al.
Microbiology:  Fundamentals and applications – R. M. Atlas

MBIO – 104

MICROBIAL CHEMISTRY

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-3 hours)

Biomolecules and biopolymers: Properties and functions of the major and essential elements, water, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. Molecular architecture of microbial cells

Chemical composition and function of cellular structures and organelles: Capsule, flagella, pili, cell wall, cytoplasmic membrane, pigments, ribosome, cytoplasmic inclusions and endospore

Antimicrobial agents: Definition, classification and type, chemistry, mode of action, antibiotic resistance and the factors affecting antimicrobial activity. Study of penicillin, cephalosporin, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, nystatin, gentamicin and griseofulvin. Effectiveness of antimicrobial agents

Books Recommended

Bacterial Metabolism - Gottschalk

Chemical Microbiology – A.H. Rose

Antibiotics: a scientific approach – A.L. Lehninger


MBIO – 105 

FOOD MICROBIOLOGY

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-3 hours)

Introduction: Historical background of food microbiology

Food and microorganisms: Factors of food affecting microbial growth

Food contamination & spoilage: Yeast, mold and bacteria, sources of food contamination, factors affecting microbiological spoilage of food products, chemical changes caused by microorganisms

Food infection & intoxication: Food borne infections and intoxications, various types of food poisoning, factors contributing to outbreak of food poisoning, ,bacterial toxins, mycotoxins, Viruses, algal toxins, marine toxins, afla toxin

Food Preservation: Principles of food preservation, physical and chemical methods of food preservation, uses of high temperature, low temperature, drying, using food additives, microbiological aspects of radiation for preservation of food

Quality control: Microbial quality control management & Inspection, monitoring of microbial population of food and fisheries products, microbiological specifications and standard of different of types of food

Meat and Dairy Microbiology: Microbiology of meat & meat products, milk & milk products

Production of fermented foods: Bakery products, dairy products, cheese, yogurt & curd, vegetable products & oriental fermented foods

Books Recommended

  1. Food Microbiology – W. C. Frazier and D. C. Westhoff
  2. Modern Food Microbiology, 3rd end. – James M. Jay

MBIO – 106

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-3 hours)

The Behavior of Gases: Kinetic theory of gases, ideal gas laws, real gases, solubility of gases in liquids, Henry’s law and its application

Background of Thermodynamics: Conservation of energy, Heat of reactions, Enthalpy, Entropy, Free energy, Spontaneous and non- spontaneous reactions, Thermodynamic standard states Standard functions, Free energy changes in aqueous solutions

Properties of Aqueous Solutions: Vapour pressure, Osmosis, Solubility, Solutions of electrolytes, Solubility product, common ion effect

Acids, bases and buffers: Acids, basses and buffers in aqueous solutions, pH, acids and bases, titration of an acid with a base buffer mixtures and their buffer capacity, Acid-base indicators, pH of dilute aqueous solutions of salts, measurement of pH, dissociation of polyprotic weak acids

Books Recommended

A Text Book of Physical Chemistry – K.K Sharma et al.

Practical Physical Chemistry – S. findlay

Physical Chemistry – Bahl and Tuli

A Text Book of Physical Chemistry – S. Glasstone

Application of Physical Chemistry for biological systems – R. Chang


MBIO – 107

ELEMENTARY MATHEMATICS AND CALCULUS

(Marks-50, Credits-2, Time-3 hours)

Elementary Mathematics: 20

Matrices, Matrix operations and linear systems of Equations: Rank of a Matrix. Consistency of a linear systems of Equations, Matrix inversion method, Crammer’s method. Determinants up to 4th order. Series & power functions, logarithmic series

Calculus: 30

1. Functions of a single variable and its domain and ranges. Graphical representation of standard functions

2. Techniques of finding derivatives of functions of single variable. Geometrical interpretation of derivatives. Successive differentiation’s, Leibnitz’s theorem

3. Integration of functions of a single variable. Techniques of integration by standard formula, method of substitution, Integration by parts, integration of special functions, integrations of trigonometric functions

4. Definite integrals. Properties of definite integrals. Idea and uses of Beta and Gamma Functions

Books Recommended

Mohammad and Bhattacharjee: Differential and integral calculus

Das & Mukheriee: Differential calculus

Das & Mukheriee: Integral calculus

Shahidullah and Battacharjee – A Text Book on higher algebra

Bernard and Child – Higher algebra


MBIO – 108

ALGOLOGY

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: History and importance of algae, Habit, habitat and classification., Pigments and types of chloroplasts, Reproduction and algal perennation, Range of vegetative and reproductive structure and Life cycle pattern

Classification: General characteristics, reproduction and economic importance of  i) Cyanophyceae ii) Chlorophyceae iii) Xanthophyceae iv) Bacillariophyceae v) Rhodophyceae

General study: i) Nostoc ii) Oscillatoria iii) Volvox iv) Chlorella v) Oedogonium vi) Fritschiella vii) Vaucheria viii) Chara ix) Sargassum x) Polysiphonia xi) Batrachospermum xii) Botrydium

Evolution: Evolutionary trends in algae

Factors: Factors determining the distribution of fresh and marine algae

Books Recommended

Text book of Algae – B.R Vashista

Algae – G.L Chopra

Algae – B.P Pandey

Text Book of Algae – O.P Sharma

Text Book of Algae – N.D. Kamath

The structure and reproduction in – Fritsch F.E.

MBIO – 109

INTRODUCTORY BIOCHEMISTRY

(Marks-75, Credits-3, Time-4 hours)

Introduction: History and feature of Biochemistry, scope of Biochemistry

PH : Definition and uses

Buffer: Definition, categorization, uses

Biomolecules: Molecular logic of living organisms. Functions, reaction and detection of carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and Vitamins

Bioenergetics and Metabolism: Catabolism, anabolism, ATP cycle and photosynthesis. A Brief introduction to glycolysis, TCA cycle and electron transport chain,b-oxidation of fatty acids and ketone bodies. Digestion, absorption, excretion and urea cycle

Books Recommended

Principles of Biochemistry – Lehninger – 2nd edition /3rd edition

Lehninger‘s Principles of Biochemistry – Cox & Nelson

Text book of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations– Devlin

Biochemistry – Stryer

Text book of Biochemistry – R.K. Murray


Practical (Major Courses): 125 = {50+50 +25 (Practical class performance)}  Credits-5

MBIO – 110

PRACTICAL: (Course no.- 101, 102)

Marks–50, Credits–2, Time-6 hours

Microscopy: A detailed study of principles and application of simple, compound microscopes, Measurement of microorganisms

Staining: Simple staining, Gram staining, Acid fast staining, Capsule staining, Spore staining, Flagella staining and negative staining

Motility: Hanging drop method

Study of Common Microbes: Fungi, actinomycetes, protozoa, etc

Cultivation of Microorganisms: Culture, culture medium. Enumeration of microorganisms from soil, air, water

MBIO – 111

PRACTICAL: (Course no. 103, 104 and 105)

Marks–50, Credits–2, Time –6 hours

Microbial Ecology: MPN and membrane filter technique; Rhizosphere microbes; Antibiosis test, Synergistic effect of drug combinations; Techniques for the cultivation of anaerobic microbes

Microbiology of food: Microbiological analysis of milk, dairy products, fisheries and other types of food. Methylene blue reductase test

 

Practical (Minor Courses): 100 = {40+40 +20 (practical class  performance)}  Credits-4

MBIO – 112

PRACTICAL: (Course no. 106, 108 )

Marks–40, Time –6 hours

Analytical:

Use of analytical balance

Preparation of standard solution

Standardization of HCl

Determination of acetic acid content of vinegar

Estimation of carbon, Nitrogen, Iron, Sulfur, Copper, Phosphorus from plant/soil source

Algology:

Preparation of various fixatives used in algae preservation

Study of fresh water algae

Study of marine water algae

Study of museum specimens

MBIO – 113

PRACTICAL: (Course 107, 109)

Marks–40, Time –6 hours

Analysis of Carbohydrates:

General test for carbohydrate

Reducing sugar test

Barfoed’s test

Iodine test

Foulgers test and hydrolysis of sucrose and starch

Determination of lactose content of milk

Determination of ascorbic acid content of biological sample

Analysis of Amino acids and Proteins: Precipitation of proteins, colour reactions of proteins and amino acids, Biurete test, Test for cystine & cystein and differentiation of proteins (Paper chromatography)

Analysis of Lipids: Solubility test, Detection of glycerol, saponification and cholesterol test